Sunday, February 28, 2010

DOMINGO..FINALZINHO..

AGRADEÇO A SUA COMPANHIA. ESTAVA COM O MEU FILHO NA PRAIA. MAIS VIM DEIXAR UMA FLOR PARA VOCÊ E AGRADECER A SUA LINDA VISITA NESTE DOMINGO. QUASE NO FINALZINHO. MUITO OBRIGADA .. AGRADEÇO PELOS COMENTÁRIOS NA POSTAGEM ABAIXO. FOI UM PRAZER TE RECEBER..CARINHOSAMENTE...SANDRA

Amigo é um Anjo que está sempre ao nosso lado.


Cold

It's been really cold here lately. The wind has been strong too. We've had snow. My Dad said that he's glad he doesn't have to go to work today. Because it's really ugly outside. We're not used to having winter weather here. It usually doesn't snow. And it never gets this cold.

Every night, my Dad has built a fire in our fireplace. Today my abuelitas didn't go to mass with us. Because the weather was too bad. It's better that they stay at home. I wouldn't want them to get hurt. And right after church, my Dad and I came home.

He made us breakfast. And after we ate, we all put our pjs on. We've been under the blankets since. It's that cold! But I'm glad that we get to have hot chocolate. And my Dad's homemade soup. :) C

Saturday, February 27, 2010

The Decline and Fall of the Cannabinoid Antagonists

Cannabinoid Receptor, Type 1 (CB1) antagonists were supposed to be the next big thing.

They're weight loss drugs, and with obesity rates rising and the diet craze showing no signs of abating, that's a large and growing market (...sorry). They worked, at least in the short term, and they were at least as effective as existing pills. They may even have had health benefits over and above promoting weight loss, such as improving blood fat and sugar levels through metabolic effects.

It all started off well. Rimonabant, manufactured by Sanofi, was the first CB1 antagonist to become available for human use: it hit the European market in 2006, as Acomplia. Four large clinical trials showed convincingly that it helped people lose weight. Rival drug companies were hard at work developing other CB1 antagonists, and inverse agonists (similar, but even more potent). The "bants" included Merck's taranabant, Pfizer's otenabant, and more.

Even more excitingly, there were indications that CB1 antagonists could do more than help people lose weight: they might also be useful in helping people quit smoking, alcohol or drugs. The animal evidence that CB1 antagonists did this was strong. Human trials were underway. Optimists saw rimonabant and related drugs as offering something unprecedented: self-control in a pill, abstinence on demand.

*

But it ended in tears, literally. Rimonabant was pulled from the European market in late 2008; it was never approved in the USA at all. After rimonabant was withdrawn, drug companies abandoned the development of other CB1 antagonists.

The problem was that they made people depressed. In several large clinical trials of rimonabant it raised the risk of suffering depression and other psychiatric problems, like anxiety and irritability, compared to placebo. The reported rates of these symptoms ranged from a few % up to over 40% depending upon the population, but there have been no trials (except very small ones) in which these effects weren't seen. This means that CB1 antagonists cause depression rather more consistently than antidepressants treat it.

Merck have just released the data from a trial of taranabant: A clinical trial assessing the safety and efficacy of taranabant, a CB1R inverse agonist, in obese and overweight patients. It makes a fitting epitaph to the CB1 antagonists. They gave taranabant, at a range of doses, or placebo, to overweight people to go alongside diet and exercise to help them lose weight. The results were extremely similar to those seen with rimonabant; the drug worked:

But there were side effects. Alongside things like nausea, vomiting, and sweating, about 35% of people taking high doses of taranabant reported "psychiatric disorders". 20% of people on placebo also did, so this is not quite as bad as it first appears, but it's still striking, especially since a number of people on high doses of taranabant reported suicidal thoughts or behaviours...

Suicidal ideation was reported in three patients in the taranabant 6-mg group in year 1 and in one patient in the 4-mg group in year 2. There was one suicide attempt reported in a patient with a previous history of suicide attempts in the 6/2-mg group while the patient was receiving 2-mg, and one episode of suicidal behavior reported in a patient in the 6/2-mg group while the patient was receiving 6-mg. There were no completed suicides. The adjudication of possibly suicide-related adverse experiences during years 1 and 2 indicated an increased incidence of suicidality in the taranabant groups...
This is the kind of thing that gives drug companies nightmares, especially today, in the post-SSRI lawsuits era. This is why rimonabant was removed from the EU market in 2008 and why it was never approved in the US.

*

Safety concerns have plagued weight loss medications for decades. The problem is not that they don't work: plenty of drugs cause weight loss, at least for as long as you keep taking them. But unfortunately, there's always a 'but'.

Fenfluramine worked, but it caused heart valve defects, and was banned. Sibutramine works, but it's just been suspended from the European market due to concerns over heart disease (a different kind). Amphetamine-like stimulants such as phentermine work, but they're addictive and liable to abuse. What with rimonabant and sibutramine are gone, the only weight-loss drug approved for use in Europe is orlistat, which seems to be safe, but has some very unpleasant side effects...

Still, CB1 antagonists have a unique mechanism of action: they block the CB1 receptor, which is what gets activated by the cannabinoid ingredients in marijuana, and also the brain's own cannabinoids neurotransmitters
(endocannabinoids). The past five years has seen a huge amount of research showing that the CB1 receptor is involved in everything from memory and emotion to motivation, pain sensation and hormone secretion. We recently learned that there are even CB1 receptors on the tongue that regulate taste.

CB1 is able to do all this because it's found almost everywhere in the brain. To simplify, but only a little, the endocannabinoid system is a general feedback mechanism, which allows cells on the receiving end of neural transmission to "talk back" to the neuron sending them signals; if they're receiving lots of input, they tell the cell sending the signals to quiet down. In other words, endocannabinoids regulate the release of just about every other neurotransmitter. To be honest, given how important the system is in the brain, it's surprising that depression and anxiety are the biggest problems with CB1 antagonists.

For all that, we still don't know why they cause psychiatric symptoms, although a number of mechanisms have been suggested. Hopefully, someone will work this out sooner or later, since that would add an important piece to the puzzle of what goes on in the brain during depression...

ResearchBlogging.orgAronne, L., Tonstad, S., Moreno, M., Gantz, I., Erondu, N., Suryawanshi, S., Molony, C., Sieberts, S., Nayee, J., Meehan, A., Shapiro, D., Heymsfield, S., Kaufman, K., & Amatruda, J. (2010). A clinical trial assessing the safety and efficacy of taranabant, a CB1R inverse agonist, in obese and overweight patients: a high-dose study International Journal of Obesity DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2010.21

The Decline and Fall of the Cannabinoid Antagonists

Cannabinoid Receptor, Type 1 (CB1) antagonists were supposed to be the next big thing.

They're weight loss drugs, and with obesity rates rising and the diet craze showing no signs of abating, that's a large and growing market (...sorry). They worked, at least in the short term, and they were at least as effective as existing pills. They may even have had health benefits over and above promoting weight loss, such as improving blood fat and sugar levels through metabolic effects.

It all started off well. Rimonabant, manufactured by Sanofi, was the first CB1 antagonist to become available for human use: it hit the European market in 2006, as Acomplia. Four large clinical trials showed convincingly that it helped people lose weight. Rival drug companies were hard at work developing other CB1 antagonists, and inverse agonists (similar, but even more potent). The "bants" included Merck's taranabant, Pfizer's otenabant, and more.

Even more excitingly, there were indications that CB1 antagonists could do more than help people lose weight: they might also be useful in helping people quit smoking, alcohol or drugs. The animal evidence that CB1 antagonists did this was strong. Human trials were underway. Optimists saw rimonabant and related drugs as offering something unprecedented: self-control in a pill, abstinence on demand.

*

But it ended in tears, literally. Rimonabant was pulled from the European market in late 2008; it was never approved in the USA at all. After rimonabant was withdrawn, drug companies abandoned the development of other CB1 antagonists.

The problem was that they made people depressed. In several large clinical trials of rimonabant it raised the risk of suffering depression and other psychiatric problems, like anxiety and irritability, compared to placebo. The reported rates of these symptoms ranged from a few % up to over 40% depending upon the population, but there have been no trials (except very small ones) in which these effects weren't seen. This means that CB1 antagonists cause depression rather more consistently than antidepressants treat it.

Merck have just released the data from a trial of taranabant: A clinical trial assessing the safety and efficacy of taranabant, a CB1R inverse agonist, in obese and overweight patients. It makes a fitting epitaph to the CB1 antagonists. They gave taranabant, at a range of doses, or placebo, to overweight people to go alongside diet and exercise to help them lose weight. The results were extremely similar to those seen with rimonabant; the drug worked:

But there were side effects. Alongside things like nausea, vomiting, and sweating, about 35% of people taking high doses of taranabant reported "psychiatric disorders". 20% of people on placebo also did, so this is not quite as bad as it first appears, but it's still striking, especially since a number of people on high doses of taranabant reported suicidal thoughts or behaviours...

Suicidal ideation was reported in three patients in the taranabant 6-mg group in year 1 and in one patient in the 4-mg group in year 2. There was one suicide attempt reported in a patient with a previous history of suicide attempts in the 6/2-mg group while the patient was receiving 2-mg, and one episode of suicidal behavior reported in a patient in the 6/2-mg group while the patient was receiving 6-mg. There were no completed suicides. The adjudication of possibly suicide-related adverse experiences during years 1 and 2 indicated an increased incidence of suicidality in the taranabant groups...
This is the kind of thing that gives drug companies nightmares, especially today, in the post-SSRI lawsuits era. This is why rimonabant was removed from the EU market in 2008 and why it was never approved in the US.

*

Safety concerns have plagued weight loss medications for decades. The problem is not that they don't work: plenty of drugs cause weight loss, at least for as long as you keep taking them. But unfortunately, there's always a 'but'.

Fenfluramine worked, but it caused heart valve defects, and was banned. Sibutramine works, but it's just been suspended from the European market due to concerns over heart disease (a different kind). Amphetamine-like stimulants such as phentermine work, but they're addictive and liable to abuse. What with rimonabant and sibutramine are gone, the only weight-loss drug approved for use in Europe is orlistat, which seems to be safe, but has some very unpleasant side effects...

Still, CB1 antagonists have a unique mechanism of action: they block the CB1 receptor, which is what gets activated by the cannabinoid ingredients in marijuana, and also the brain's own cannabinoids neurotransmitters
(endocannabinoids). The past five years has seen a huge amount of research showing that the CB1 receptor is involved in everything from memory and emotion to motivation, pain sensation and hormone secretion. We recently learned that there are even CB1 receptors on the tongue that regulate taste.

CB1 is able to do all this because it's found almost everywhere in the brain. To simplify, but only a little, the endocannabinoid system is a general feedback mechanism, which allows cells on the receiving end of neural transmission to "talk back" to the neuron sending them signals; if they're receiving lots of input, they tell the cell sending the signals to quiet down. In other words, endocannabinoids regulate the release of just about every other neurotransmitter. To be honest, given how important the system is in the brain, it's surprising that depression and anxiety are the biggest problems with CB1 antagonists.

For all that, we still don't know why they cause psychiatric symptoms, although a number of mechanisms have been suggested. Hopefully, someone will work this out sooner or later, since that would add an important piece to the puzzle of what goes on in the brain during depression...

ResearchBlogging.orgAronne, L., Tonstad, S., Moreno, M., Gantz, I., Erondu, N., Suryawanshi, S., Molony, C., Sieberts, S., Nayee, J., Meehan, A., Shapiro, D., Heymsfield, S., Kaufman, K., & Amatruda, J. (2010). A clinical trial assessing the safety and efficacy of taranabant, a CB1R inverse agonist, in obese and overweight patients: a high-dose study International Journal of Obesity DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2010.21

Friday, February 26, 2010

UMA AMIZADE VIRTUAL..QUE FICOU REAL...II

PARTE II - NA CASA DA ANA. DATA 07.02.2010(DOMINGO)

NÃO ESTOU CONSEGUINDO COLOCAR AS FALAS NO INTERVALO DAS FOTOS.
VOU DEIXAR ASSIM:
BRINDAMOS COM COCA COLA, COMEMOS PASTELÃO E A TORTA MINEIRINHA, MUITO GOSTOSA E DEPOIS FOMOS ATÉ O SHOPPING CURITIBA.
FOI UM DIA MUITO LEGAL..RIMOS MUITO..


ESTAMOS NA CASA DA ANA.. SANDRA, TATI, ANDREI WILL E MARLETE... MOMENTO MUITO ESPECIAL..CHEIO DE EMOÇÃO..CORAÇÕES QUE BATEM FORTE..OLHOS QUE FICAM MAREJADOS. MOMENTOS MUITOS ESPECIAIS..QUE VIVERÃO PARA SEMPRE NAS NOSSAS LEMBRANÇAS...DOCES MOMENTOS DA VIDA...ESSES NINGUÉM NOS TIRA....

QUANTA EMOÇÃO, AMIGA...
WIL, SANDRA, ANA(ESSES OLHINHOS CHEIOS DE EMOÇÃO..AINDA SEM ACREDITAR NA NOSSA LOUCURA, NÃO É?!!!!!), E JU..FILHA DA ANA, COM O SEU BEBE....TODOS POSANDO PARA A FOTO...







AMIGA ESSES MOMENTOS FORAM MUITO ESPECIAIS PARA TODOS NÓS.
UM DIA MUITO DIFERENTE...VALEU A PENA.

SHOPPING CURITIBA...
http://www.shoppingcuritiba.com.br/img/img-institucional-conheca-lojas.jpg

NÃO ESQUEÇA DE PEGAR SEUS PRESENTINHOS AQUI..

Meus Mimos-VOU TE ESPERAR LÁ. CURIOSA AGRADECE...



Poetas-Um Voo Livre
(Tem selo para vc.)

Sinal de Liberdade-uma expressão de sentimento

(Tem selo para vc.)

Blog Coletivo-Uma Interação de Amigos-
PARA QUEM VAI O SEU OSCAR????

Thursday, February 25, 2010

Sarita is Happy

My Tio Juan and my Tia Christina came home today. Sarita is very excited to see them. I think they had a good trip. Because they can't stop smiling! They brought us all back something too. I got a pretty pearl necklace.

All my tios sent them to Hawaii. I think they were gone for a month. My Nono said that they needed some time away. Because they've been taking care of Sarita since she was a baby. They spend most of their time at the hospital. My Nana, Nono, and Dad took turns watching Sarita. I know she had a good time!

It snowed here on Tuesday. We live in the desert. But this year, we have had a lot of snow. It's been fun to play in! But my Tio Juan said it was a big change for him! I think they just got used to being on the beach. :)

I'm glad they're back. We all missed them! My Nana, Nono, and I have been praying for a baby too! We're not supposed to say anything. But My Tio and Tia are trying to have another baby. It could help Sarita. I hope God sends them another angel. :) C

O VIRTUAL QUE VIRAOU REAL -PARTE 1

PARTE I

É COM MUITO CARINHO QUE REGISTRO AQUI, UM POUQUINHO DA NOSSA VISITA NA CASA DA ANA, VÉSPERA DO SEU ANIVERSÁRIO..
FOI UM DIA SUPER MARAVILHOSO..VALEU A PENA.
E COMO DIZ O POETA:- "TUDO VALE A PENA SE A ALMA NÃO É PEQUENA".
RUMO A CIDADE DE CURITIBA...
http://www2.uol.com.br/bestcars/carros/situacoes/estrada-1.jpg
ESSE CAMINHO SERÁ UMA LONGA VIAGEM..
A EMOÇÃO E O PRAZER SE MISTURAM...

CHEGAMOS..HORA DE LOCALIZAR O ENDEREÇO..

NADA QUE ALGUMAS INFORMAÇÕES ... PARA LOCALIZAR A NOSSA GRANDE AMIGA VIRTUAL...ENTRA AQUI..PASSA ALI E CHEGA AO DESTINO...
http://mrm.mendes.nom.br/2006-001-curitiba-10.jpg

MEU FILHO, CHAMA A ANA PELO INTERFONE..PARA ENTREGAR UM PRESENTE...DIZENDO QUE É UMA ENTREGA..VINDA ESPECIALMENTE DE JARAGUÁ DO SUL(SC), (Infelizmente não registramos esse momento..) (imagem ilustrativa do presente)

COMO NÃO ESTOU CONSEGUINDO COLOCAR TODAS AS FOTOS, VOU FAZER A POSTAGEM EM DUAS PARTES....
CENAS DOS PRÓXIMOS CAPÍTULOS...SÓ AMANHÃ....


Poetas-Um Voo Livre

Sinal de Liberdade-uma expressão de sentimento

Blog Coletivo-Uma Interação de Amigos-
PARA QUEM VAI O SEU OSCAR????

Meus Mimos-

NÃO DEIXE DE PEGAR SEUS PRESENTES...


OBRIGADA ANA, PELO CARINHO DEIXADO ONTEM...

Pelos caminhos da vida. disse...Que seu dia seja realmente um otimo dia...
Que suas horas sejam cheias de felicidades...
Que seu entardecer seja o mais maravilhoso...
Que o seu anoitecer seja carinhosamente depositado por Deus!

(Vilma Galvão).

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

DEU A MACACA NO PC!!!


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_5uIKqEXgxKA/SxXxJjiUdrI/AAAAAAAAAcI/viinCD2kvws/s320/macaco-no-galho.jpg
SIM NÃO CONSIGO POSTAR AS FOTOS DO NOSSO ENCONTRO NA CASA DA ANA.
ESTOU CHATEADA.
PASSEI A MANHÃ TODA FAZENDO ISSO E NÃO DEU CERTO .
QUANDO TENTO PUBLICAR DESTORCE TUDO.. ONTEM TAMBÉM..


TEM MACACA SOLTA NO AR. rsrsrsrsrsr

VOU TENTAR NOVAMENTE E POSTAR MAIS TARDE.


Poetas-Um Voo Livre

Sinal de Liberdade-uma expressão de sentimento

Blog Coletivo-Uma Interação de Amigos-
PARA QUEM VAI O SEU OSCAR????

Meus Mimos-

NÃO DEIXE DE PEGAR SEUS PRESENTES...


ENQUANTO ISSO..LEVEM O MEU CORAÇÃO...

TE OFEREÇO ESTE SELO DE CARINHO E AFETO..

SELO DO CORAÇÃO
..NELE TEM UM CARINHO MUITO ESPECIAL
:VOCÊ!!!

More on Deep Brain Stimulation for OCD

Over the past few years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a promising treatment for severe psychiatric disorders that haven't responded to conventional approaches. A new paper from the University of Florida reports on a trial of DBS in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and unlike most DBS studies, it was placebo-controlled: Deep Brain Stimulation for Intractable Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.


Six patients were implanted with electrodes in the "ventral capsule/ventral striatum" (VC/VS). This area has previously been used as a DBS target for OCD. The original reason for choosing to implant electrodes in this region was that it's long been known that destroying the anterior limb of the internal capsule (capsulotomy) alleviates OCD symptoms in many cases, especially if the ventral (lower) part is removed.

Did it work? Yes, but not for everyone. Out of the 6 patients who entered the trial, all of whom were extremely ill despite having tried multiple medications and psychotherapy, 4 (66%) eventually responded well. The other 2 unfortunately got little or no benefit over the 12 month trial period.

The study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase: the patients weren't told when the DBS electrodes were going to be switched on. As the graphs show, in the 3 patients who were randomly selected to have them switched on early, 2 responded pretty much immediately, while in the 3 patients whose electrodes were left off, none responded until they were turned on 30 days later, although the response at this point was fairly gradual.

One person (S1), who responded very well initially, suddenly relapsed about a year later. Upon investigation, it turned out that the battery powering their electrodes had worn out, although no-one knew this until the OCD symptoms returned, so this can't have been a placebo effect. They recovered after getting a new battery.

Overall there are few surprises here. These results confirm what we already knew about DBS: it works in many people, but not all, with response rates of around 60%; When it works, it works very well; but sometimes the effects take weeks or months to become fully apparent. This could be either because DBS starts some gradual process of change in the brain which takes time to work; or it could be that it often takes a long time to find the right stimulation parameters (voltage, frequency, etc.) which provide a good response, since this has to be done by trial-and-error. Most likely, it's a bit of both.

What I found most interesting was that the VC/VS stimulation didn't just treat people's obsessions and compulsions. It also had a mood-improving effect, and crucially, it sounds as though mood was the first thing to improve, with OCD symptoms following days or weeks later:
Finding the optimal settings for an individual subject proved challenging...unlike other experiences with DBS, there is not a clear positive symptom (e.g., tremor improvement) to gauge settings. In this study... the goal was to select parameters that produced some benefit in mood or anxiety symptoms acutely, with minimal side effects.
and mood was the first thing that got worse when the DBS was accidentally turned off for whatever reason:
Worsening in mood or increased anxiety were typically the first symptoms reported following battery depletion or inadvertent inactivation by metal detectors. Other signs of depression, such as diminished energy or interest, also emerged within days of device interruption... Exacerbation of OCD symptoms generally lagged the emergence of affective or anxiety symptoms.
And in fact, four people experienced temporary hypomania, i.e. abnormally elevated mood, which is usually seen in bipolar disorder, although none of the patients in this study had a history of bipolar. People also commonly reported increased alertness, motivation, and difficulty falling asleep.

This all fits with the fact that VC/VS stimulation has been used as a DBS target for clinical depression, as well as for OCD. Indeed, this suggests that DBS probably works in essentially the same way in both conditions. The drugs that are used to treat OCD are all antidepressants - specifically serotonin-based ones - so this makes sense too.

With luck, research on DBS in animals and humans will finally allow us to understand the neural basis of mood states like depression, and mania - something which, despite decades of research on drugs like antidepressants and mood stabilizers, is still deeply mysterious...

ResearchBlogging.orgGoodman, W., Foote, K., Greenberg, B., Ricciuti, N., Bauer, R., Ward, H., Shapira, N., Wu, S., Hill, C., & Rasmussen, S. (2010). Deep Brain Stimulation for Intractable Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Pilot Study Using a Blinded, Staggered-Onset Design Biological Psychiatry, 67 (6), 535-542 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.11.028

More on Deep Brain Stimulation for OCD

Over the past few years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a promising treatment for severe psychiatric disorders that haven't responded to conventional approaches. A new paper from the University of Florida reports on a trial of DBS in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and unlike most DBS studies, it was placebo-controlled: Deep Brain Stimulation for Intractable Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.


Six patients were implanted with electrodes in the "ventral capsule/ventral striatum" (VC/VS). This area has previously been used as a DBS target for OCD. The original reason for choosing to implant electrodes in this region was that it's long been known that destroying the anterior limb of the internal capsule (capsulotomy) alleviates OCD symptoms in many cases, especially if the ventral (lower) part is removed.

Did it work? Yes, but not for everyone. Out of the 6 patients who entered the trial, all of whom were extremely ill despite having tried multiple medications and psychotherapy, 4 (66%) eventually responded well. The other 2 unfortunately got little or no benefit over the 12 month trial period.

The study had a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase: the patients weren't told when the DBS electrodes were going to be switched on. As the graphs show, in the 3 patients who were randomly selected to have them switched on early, 2 responded pretty much immediately, while in the 3 patients whose electrodes were left off, none responded until they were turned on 30 days later, although the response at this point was fairly gradual.

One person (S1), who responded very well initially, suddenly relapsed about a year later. Upon investigation, it turned out that the battery powering their electrodes had worn out, although no-one knew this until the OCD symptoms returned, so this can't have been a placebo effect. They recovered after getting a new battery.

Overall there are few surprises here. These results confirm what we already knew about DBS: it works in many people, but not all, with response rates of around 60%; When it works, it works very well; but sometimes the effects take weeks or months to become fully apparent. This could be either because DBS starts some gradual process of change in the brain which takes time to work; or it could be that it often takes a long time to find the right stimulation parameters (voltage, frequency, etc.) which provide a good response, since this has to be done by trial-and-error. Most likely, it's a bit of both.

What I found most interesting was that the VC/VS stimulation didn't just treat people's obsessions and compulsions. It also had a mood-improving effect, and crucially, it sounds as though mood was the first thing to improve, with OCD symptoms following days or weeks later:
Finding the optimal settings for an individual subject proved challenging...unlike other experiences with DBS, there is not a clear positive symptom (e.g., tremor improvement) to gauge settings. In this study... the goal was to select parameters that produced some benefit in mood or anxiety symptoms acutely, with minimal side effects.
and mood was the first thing that got worse when the DBS was accidentally turned off for whatever reason:
Worsening in mood or increased anxiety were typically the first symptoms reported following battery depletion or inadvertent inactivation by metal detectors. Other signs of depression, such as diminished energy or interest, also emerged within days of device interruption... Exacerbation of OCD symptoms generally lagged the emergence of affective or anxiety symptoms.
And in fact, four people experienced temporary hypomania, i.e. abnormally elevated mood, which is usually seen in bipolar disorder, although none of the patients in this study had a history of bipolar. People also commonly reported increased alertness, motivation, and difficulty falling asleep.

This all fits with the fact that VC/VS stimulation has been used as a DBS target for clinical depression, as well as for OCD. Indeed, this suggests that DBS probably works in essentially the same way in both conditions. The drugs that are used to treat OCD are all antidepressants - specifically serotonin-based ones - so this makes sense too.

With luck, research on DBS in animals and humans will finally allow us to understand the neural basis of mood states like depression, and mania - something which, despite decades of research on drugs like antidepressants and mood stabilizers, is still deeply mysterious...

ResearchBlogging.orgGoodman, W., Foote, K., Greenberg, B., Ricciuti, N., Bauer, R., Ward, H., Shapira, N., Wu, S., Hill, C., & Rasmussen, S. (2010). Deep Brain Stimulation for Intractable Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Pilot Study Using a Blinded, Staggered-Onset Design Biological Psychiatry, 67 (6), 535-542 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.11.028

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Scannerphobia

Science informs us of about a tricky problem facing Chinese neuroscientists: Fear of MRI Scans Trips Up Brain Researchers.

Apparently, many parents are concerned about the possible impact of strong magnetic fields on children, and are unwilling to allow their children to get MRI scanned for research purposes; the article reports on two Chinese neuroscientists who were unable to find healthy children to volunteer for their MRI studies.
“I would not dare to allow my children to be tested by MRI,” says radiologist Han Hongbin of Peking University Third Hospital. “Nobody can ensure that there is no potential danger,” such as during nonroutine MRI scans that use extremely powerful magnetic fields, he says.
This is not a problem I've heard of amongst Western researchers, but on the other hand, it's not all that bizarre. In Britain, and as far as I know elsewhere too, standard practice is never to include women who are (or might be) pregnant in fMRI studies. This is not because strong magnetic fields have any known risks for unborn babies, or indeed anyone else. It's purely a better-safe-than-sorry precaution. But it sounds as though the concerns of Chinese parents are of that kind as well.

MRI safety is an interesting topic. Used incorrectly, an MRI scanner could, in theory, harm you in quite a few ways, from heating you up due to radiofrequency energy transfer, to stopping your heart by inducing an electric current in it (although I don't think that's ever actually happened, it is a theoretical concern). Fortunately, by sensible selection of the scan parameters, these risks can be avoided.

The only real danger is that posed by metal objects (specifically ferromagnetic ones), which in the presence of a strong magnetic field become deadly projectiles. This is why it's a bad idea to carry that pair of scissors into the scanner room. Remember: the magnet is always on...

Scannerphobia

Science informs us of about a tricky problem facing Chinese neuroscientists: Fear of MRI Scans Trips Up Brain Researchers.

Apparently, many parents are concerned about the possible impact of strong magnetic fields on children, and are unwilling to allow their children to get MRI scanned for research purposes; the article reports on two Chinese neuroscientists who were unable to find healthy children to volunteer for their MRI studies.
“I would not dare to allow my children to be tested by MRI,” says radiologist Han Hongbin of Peking University Third Hospital. “Nobody can ensure that there is no potential danger,” such as during nonroutine MRI scans that use extremely powerful magnetic fields, he says.
This is not a problem I've heard of amongst Western researchers, but on the other hand, it's not all that bizarre. In Britain, and as far as I know elsewhere too, standard practice is never to include women who are (or might be) pregnant in fMRI studies. This is not because strong magnetic fields have any known risks for unborn babies, or indeed anyone else. It's purely a better-safe-than-sorry precaution. But it sounds as though the concerns of Chinese parents are of that kind as well.

MRI safety is an interesting topic. Used incorrectly, an MRI scanner could, in theory, harm you in quite a few ways, from heating you up due to radiofrequency energy transfer, to stopping your heart by inducing an electric current in it (although I don't think that's ever actually happened, it is a theoretical concern). Fortunately, by sensible selection of the scan parameters, these risks can be avoided.

The only real danger is that posed by metal objects (specifically ferromagnetic ones), which in the presence of a strong magnetic field become deadly projectiles. This is why it's a bad idea to carry that pair of scissors into the scanner room. Remember: the magnet is always on...

VOCÊ É O MEU AMIGO MUITO ESPECIAL...

AMIGOS, SÃO FLORES QUE RECEBEMOS A CADA DIA...
POR ISTO DEIXO ESTA FLOR COM O CORAÇÃO PARA TI..


TE OFEREÇO ESTE SELO DE CARINHO E AFETO..



LEVE O SELO DO CORAÇÃO..NELE TEM UM CARINHO MUITO ESPECIAL
:VOCÊ!!!

Este blog se destina aos prémios e selos oferecidos pelos  amigos   do blog ALVARO OLIVEIRA-POESIA
(imagem do blog do Álvaro)

Poetas-Um Voo Livre

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Blog Coletivo-Uma Interação de Amigos-

Meus Mimos-

Monday, February 22, 2010

Snow White



Yesterday we watched a few Disney movies. My Dad said that he had never seen Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs. I'm not sure about that. But that's what he said. He liked it a lot. He told me that the next time we go to Disney World, he wants to buy something with the Dwarfs on it. I think he should get a coffee mug. :)

Sarita told him that he looked like Doc. I think he is more like Happy. My Dad didn't really know who we were talking about. He just knew who Sleepy, Doopey, and Grumpy were. Doopey reminds him of Sancho. He's pretty silly like that! And Grumpy, he knows Grumpy. Because my Nana has some pjs and a sweatshirt with Grumpy on them. My Nana says that she is like Grumpy in the morning. My Dad agrees. :) She just doesn't like the mornings. My Dad is like that. But coffee always makes him feel better. I hope we get to see Snow White again with my Nana! :) C

BOM DIA MEUS AMIGOS!!!!!



QUERO AGRDECER A TODOS QUE VIAJARAM COMIGO..
FICO MUITO FELIZ...

LINK AQUI..

AMIGOS SÃO OS PRESENTES QUE RECEBEMOS..A CADA DIA...A CADA MOMENTO...
POR ISSO, EU SÓ TENHO É DE AGRADECER...PELO SEU CARINHO..AFETO E AMIZADE MUITO SINCERA.
MUITO OBRIGADA.

TE OFEREÇO ESTE SELO DE CARINHO E AFETO..

LOGO RETRIBUIREI TODAS AS VISITAS...HOJE NÃO SERÁ POSSIVEL..MAS EU IREI....
ME AGURADE.
LEVE O SELO DO CORAÇÃO..NELE TEM UM CARINHO MUITO ESPECIAL
:VOCÊ!!!

Este blog se destina aos prémios e selos oferecidos pelos  amigos  do blog ALVARO OLIVEIRA-POESIA
(imagem do blog do Álvaro)

Poetas-Um Voo Livre

Sinal de Liberdade-uma expressão de sentimento

Blog Coletivo-Uma Interação de Amigos-

PARA VOCÊ MULHER..VENHA VER...

Meus Mimos-


Saturday, February 20, 2010

ANJO AMIGO!!!

AMIGOS SÃO VERDADEIROS PRESENTES VIRTUAIS..
POR ISSO DEIXO ESTA MENSAGEM PARA VOCÊ..COM MUITO CARINHO..

VOU TE ESPERAR POR AQUI..

LINK AQUI..

2º concurso de Poesia EMBARQUE NETA MAGIA E VAMOS COMIGO.SERÁ UM PRAZER VIAJAR NESTE MUNDO ENCANTADO DA POESIA.
Este blog se destina aos prémios e selos oferecidos pelos  amigos do blog ALVARO OLIVEIRA-POESIA

Poetas-Um Voo Livre

Sinal de Liberdade-uma expressão de sentimento

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PARA VOCÊ MULHER..VENHA VER...

Meus Mimos(venha buscar seu Prêmio)
PARA AS LINDAS MULHERES UM SELO...

Little Women



My Dad and I went to Barnes and Noble yesterday. I've been wanting a new book. It's been really cold around here. I like to read when it gets cold like this.

I looked and looked through all the books. My Dad was having coffee and a cookie. I picked the book Little Women. My Nana and I had been talking about it. She likes to read a lot like me. I stayed up late last night reading. I got up early today to read too! I'm already halfway through my new book. But it's a really good book. :) C

Friday, February 19, 2010

Drunk on Alcohol?

When you drink alcohol and get drunk, are you getting drunk on alcohol?

Well, obviously, you might think, and so did I. But it turns out that some people claim that the alcohol (ethanol) in drinks isn't the only thing responsible for their effects - they say that acetaldehyde may be important, perhaps even more so.

South Korean researchers Kim et al report that it's acetaldehyde, rather than ethanol, which explains alcohol's immediate effects on cognitive and motor skills. During the metabolism of ethanol in the body, it's first converted into acetaldehyde, which then gets converted into acetate and excreted. Acetaldehyde build-up is popularly renowned as a cause of hangovers (although it's unclear how true this is), but could it also be involved in the acute effects?

Kim et al gave 24 male volunteers a range of doses of ethanol (in the form of vodka and orange juice). Half of them carried a genetic variant (ALDH2*2) which impairs the breakdown of acetaldehyde in the body. About 50% of people of East Asian origin, e.g. Koreans, carry this variant, which is rare in other parts of the world.

As expected, compared to the others, the ALDH2*2 carriers had much higher blood acetaldehyde levels after drinking alcohol, while there was little or no difference in their blood ethanol levels.

Interestingly, though, the ALDH2*2 group also showed much more impairment of cognitive and motor skills, such as reaction time or a simulated driving task. On most measures, the non-carriers showed very little effect of alcohol, while the carriers were strongly affected, especially at high doses. Blood acetaldehyde was more strongly correlated with poor performance than blood alcohol was.

So the authors concluded that:
Acetaldehyde might be more important than alcohol in determining the effects on human psychomotor function and skills.
So is acetaldehyde to blame when you spend half an hour trying and failing to unlock your front door after a hard nights drinking? Should we be breathalyzing drivers for it? Maybe: this is an interesting finding, and there's quite a lot of animal evidence that acetaldehyde has acute sedative, hypnotic and amnesic effects, amongst others.

Still, there's another explanation for these results: maybe the
ALDH2*2 carriers just weren't paying much attention to the tasks, because they felt ill, as ALDH2*2 carriers generally do after drinking, as a result of acetaldehyde build-up. No-one's going to be operating at peak performance if they're suffering the notorious flush reaction or "Asian glow", which includes skin flushing, nausea, headache, and increased pulse...

ResearchBlogging.orgKim SW, Bae KY, Shin HY, Kim JM, Shin IS, Youn T, Kim J, Kim JK, & Yoon JS (2009). The Role of Acetaldehyde in Human Psychomotor Function: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study. Biological psychiatry PMID: 19914598